HELP

Greg
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HELP

I need to write a report on water pretty much. science is cool but i never really grasped it until AFTER the tests.I am in AP Bio and i have to write an essay. the following is what is it pretty much.

WEEKLY ESSAY 1:
The unique properties (characteristics) of water make life possible on Earth. Select three properties of water and
A.) for each propert, identify and define the property and explain in terms of the physical/chemical nature of water.
B.) for each property, describe one example of how the property affects the functioning of living organisms.

I was thinking that three possible properties were Adhesive, Cohesive, and Polarity. but I am not sure. I absolutely NEED to get a good grade on this. Any help or hints would be MUCH appreciated


Sapient
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Greg wrote: I absolutely

Greg wrote:
I absolutely NEED to get a good grade on this. Any help or hints would be MUCH appreciated

Aside from any hints you get here, like I told you in IM, the best way is to read through google. Sure you'll get some extra info that doesn't pertain to your report, but learning a little extra never hurt anyone.

- Brian Sapient


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darth_josh
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Osmosis Diffusion Evaporation

Osmosis
Diffusion
Evaporation
Solubility

One that I learned about when my youngest daughter was born is 'surfactin'
the body uses this to lubricate the lungs and a ridiculous amount of water is used in combination with it. Like a 10-oz. bottle every two hours for a newborn. lol. That's like you and I drinking a gallon of water every two hours.

That one may not be well-known to your teacher and could be your slam-dunk.

It might also be of interest that medical science created a hormone called surfana(sp?) to quickly interact with water in the human body to cause the lung air sacs to separate quickly in patients suffering from suffocation due to dehydration which exhibits symptoms equivalent to asthma in small children.

All of that is from memory, so you'll definitely have to use google for yourself.

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Yellow_Number_Five
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Darth's response is quite

Darth's response is quite good.

I'm not willing to write your report for you, but I will point you in the right direction.

Some things Darth did not directily mention - phospholipids (this would relate to polarity). Lipids have have hyrdrophopic and hyrophillic ends. This causes them to form sphreroid capsules in water. This is where we believe cell walls and indeed cells as we understand them got their start. Whitout this, we simply have amino acids and other compounds drifting about.

Solubility of organic componds in water is the next most important factor, IMO and is meaningless without osmosis, both of which Dath brought up. It's how we get material in and out of cell walls. It's how nutrients get in and waste gets out.

Life as we know it is NOT possible without liquid water.

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Yellow_Number_Five
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And to add a bit more. Why

And to add a bit more. Why life is as it is also relates to the properties of water and the compounds in them. Diffusion rates impact selection, as does availability - what can I take in? How much of it is out there? What can I take in and expel the fastest? Could such chemistry help explain why there are hundreds of amino acids in nature and all life as we know it use only a fraction and all life uses the same acids? You could look into that.

Some abiogenetic theories postulate compounds dropping out of solution and concentrating in evaporating pools as well.

ALL abiogenesis theories rely upon water, obviously.

You need to think of what is essential to life as we know it. What do ALL cells do? WHY does this require water?

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darth_josh
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Water is important to MY

Water is important to MY life because I run an old offset printing press at work. Just wanted to throw that in for humor.

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brainman
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*shrug* Waters cool stuff.

*shrug*

Waters cool stuff. The four big properties to talk about are Cohesion, Moderation of Temperature, Insulation, and Solvency.

Cohesion is of course important because it allows for the transportation of H2O and solutes to travel up against gravity. It also allows for capillary action. This is all good for us, since we rely on plants to survive.

Moderation of temperature is really big as well. H2O has a really high specific heat. It's easy to remember H2O's specific heat, since specific heat is defined as how much energy must be absorbed or diffused to raise or lower 1 g of substance by 1 degree C. Since a Calorie is defined as the amount of heat necessary to cause 1 g of H2O to change by 1 degree C. Therefore, the specific heat of H2O is 1 cal/g/degree C. This is actually really high compared to other molecules. This is why boiling water takes so long. This is a really good thing, since it means that the earth won't heat up really quickly. Imagine if the specific heat of water was 0.5 cal/g/degree C. The oceans would exponentially heat up and we'd all fry.

Now, since water has a high specific heat, it also has a high heat of evaporation. This is good, since that means for every gram of H2O that evaporates it takes off with it a bunch of heat. So when it evaporates off of you for instance, it cools you off. Which is why sweating works.

Insulation. Since solid water (ice) is lighter than liguid water, it floats. This insulates the water and helps to make sure the bottom of lake or stream almost never freezes. Large lakes will almost certainly never totally freeze because of this effect. This is great since it keeps aquatic life alive...and we all came from the ocean, eh?

Water is also a great solvent. It will dissolve any polar molecule, aka hydrophilic molecules, and also will work on amphipathic molecules which have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions. This is important because if water didn't dissolve stuff, then it couldn't be transported through plants...not to mention how it transports stuff in our body. Also, buffers just wouldn't work without waters solvent properties.

These are the four main properties of water.


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Quote:Solubility of organic

Quote:
Solubility of organic componds in water is the next most important factor, IMO and is meaningless without osmosis, both of which Dath brought up. It's how we get material in and out of cell walls. It's how nutrients get in and waste gets out.

To clarify, osmosis is not how we get material in and out of cell walls. Diffusion is how stuff get's in and out. And even that's not right, since we mostly use active transport to get stuff in and out (e.g. Na+/K+ pump). Cell membranes have selective permeability. The phospholipid bilayer isn't really just phospholipids, it has tons of ligand biding sites, protiens sticking out everywhere, carbons hanging off, ect. ect.

So osmosis is when water moves across a water permeable membrane. This is also regulated by the cell. It's called tonicity is is governed by osmoregulation. Diffusion is when a solute moves across a permeable membrane.


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While nothing you just said

While nothing you just said is technically wrong, brainman, I do want to reiterate that things are actually quite simple and fundamentally controlled by basic chemistry (i.e. osmosis and protonic transport (simply another sort of the same fundamental priciple, IMO)).

Certainly, we do get into stipulations when discussing active vs. passive transport, but both mechanisms involve simple osmosis. The main stipulation being those that require energy input and those that do not.

Osmosis IS how material goes in and out of a cell, sodium and potassium pumps rely on osmosis as well.

So iIn the case of active transport proteins move against the concentration gradient. Look at the Na+/P- pump in nerve cells. Na+ is maintained at lower cocentration within the cells and K+ is at higher concentrations compared with the outside. The reverse is the case on the outside of the cell. When we have a thought, ions pass across the lipid layer.

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I could have been taught

I could have been taught wrong through my entire science education; but osmosis is ONLY when water passes through a permeable membrane from a lower concentration to a higher concentration.

Diffusion is when solutes diffuse through a permeable membrane.

It's possible that solutes diffuse through a membrane while being carried by water, which would also be permeable; but it would probably have diffused there anyway without the water, or else it will diffuse back to where it was.


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Quote:Osmosis IS how

Quote:
Osmosis IS how material goes in and out of a cell, sodium and potassium pumps rely on osmosis as well.

I thought I should also mention that Na+/K+ pumps don't rely on osmosis. In fact, they rely heavily on Na+-K+-ATPase, which is a highly conserved enzyme. It is responsible for the phosphorilation that drives the action of the pump. Osmosis has nothing to do with it as far as I know. The pump is a form of active transport, which means that the cell is using ATP (energy) to get stuff in and out. Once again, osmosis is not how "material" gets in and out of a cell.


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No, of course not. Osmosis

No, of course not. Osmosis has to happen first in order for a cell to have the water to move though. Otherwise, all you have is enzymes laying around unable to affect anything.

If a cell is low on water then more water travels by osmosis through the cell wall. Water through permeable membrane. Then the material in the cell diffuses in the water to form the cell's solution thereby giving your enzymes the room and materials to travel and collect its particles for excretion, assembly, and energy then opening to take in more material to be sifted through in the process of duplicating itself.

Is this a good layman's description?

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brainman
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Quote:If a cell is low on

Quote:
If a cell is low on water then more water travels by osmosis through the cell wall.

This isn't exactly true, but it's close. A cell can die pretty easily by having too much or too little water. There has to be a balance so that the cell doesn't explode or shrivel up and die. So water isn't allowed to just go on it whenever it wants, if it was, whenever you ate some salty food then the cells in your mouth would all shrivel up and die, just for example. There is for that effect vast regulation of water going in and out of a cell. You can still kill a cell by putting it into too hypotonic or hypertonic of a solution, but the regulation helps. This is why you shouldn't drink pure water...


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brainman wrote:I could have

brainman wrote:
I could have been taught wrong through my entire science education; but osmosis is ONLY when water passes through a permeable membrane from a lower concentration to a higher concentration.

Diffusion is when solutes diffuse through a permeable membrane.

It's possible that solutes diffuse through a membrane while being carried by water, which would also be permeable; but it would probably have diffused there anyway without the water, or else it will diffuse back to where it was.

Honestly, I've been working with aritficial membranes for so long, I simply view it all as either passive or active transport.

You are correct that osmosis is water passing through a membrane from low solute concentration to high solute concentration. It's really just a specific case of diffusion or transport, involving water specifically.

Still, diffusion, transport and osmosis are simply different words for the same sort of phenomena. I guess what we are ultimately talking about are cells being selectively permeable.

Regardless, as originally asked in the OP, the phenomena is crucial and controlled by basic concentration gradients and to a specific sense by active ligand and transport sites.

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brainman
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What is your research on?

What is your research on?


Yellow_Number_Five
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I was working on a variety

I was working on a variety of things, all with glassy flouropolymer composite membranes:

Osmotic distillation of fine pharmacueticals and ultra-pure chemicals for semi-conductor fabrication, and also coffee and fruit juices to concentrate without denaturing flavoring compounds. A variety of VOC reclaimation and recycling operations at petro plants and gas stations. Azeotorpe cracking via membrane seperation of compounds like ethanol and nitric acid. Oh, and a zero G CO2 scrubber for the international space station and possibly mission to Mars.

Then I got laid off, and here I am. Let me know if anyone you know is hiring geeks.

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darth_josh
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Mike, Drop a resume by the

Mike,
Drop a resume by the US Ink headquarters in New Jersey.

CORPORATE OFFICE
651 Garden Street
Carlstadt, NJ 07072
TEL 201 935-8666
800 423-8838
FAX 201 933-3728

There are a lot of new types of ink being researched including the ultraviolet quick set inks for high quality printing. They need considerable improvements made on them before I commit to buying the $5,000 per set curing lights.
Also they are seeing a decline in flexographic ink sales due to some minor quality issues with the alcohol reagent content.

I've been a field guinea pig several times for their new products all the way back to soy carrier black ink and indigo steel glitter. Oh and the gold ink too. I haven't gotten my gold ink award yet but hell I've only been doing it for 15 years.

Back to topic: sort of
Water is also important in my life because the future of inks is to move to a type that washes off with plain water instead of using higher voc cleaning fluids.

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Yellow_Number_Five
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darth_josh wrote:Mike, Drop

darth_josh wrote:
Mike,
Drop a resume by the US Ink headquarters in New Jersey.

CORPORATE OFFICE
651 Garden Street
Carlstadt, NJ 07072
TEL 201 935-8666
800 423-8838
FAX 201 933-3728

There are a lot of new types of ink being researched including the ultraviolet quick set inks for high quality printing. They need considerable improvements made on them before I commit to buying the $5,000 per set curing lights.
Also they are seeing a decline in flexographic ink sales due to some minor quality issues with the alcohol reagent content.

I've been a field guinea pig several times for their new products all the way back to soy carrier black ink and indigo steel glitter. Oh and the gold ink too. I haven't gotten my gold ink award yet but hell I've only been doing it for 15 years.

Back to topic: sort of
Water is also important in my life because the future of inks is to move to a type that washes off with plain water instead of using higher voc cleaning fluids.

Huzzah, thanks VERY much Darth, this is right up my alley! I've worked in prototype ink degassing in high speed presses and printers as well. Thanks very, very much, I will contact them on Monday.

I am against religion because it teaches us to be satisfied with not understanding the world. - Richard Dawkins

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