Anti-thought and Judaism
One argument against religion that I have frequently heard is that faith is essentially the antithesis to rational thought and since religion treats faith as a virtue it is essentially anti-thought.
I can see quite readily how this argument applies to Christianity and Islam and to a lesser extent Taoism, Buddhism and Hinduism. I can also understand that most people arguing against religion live in Christian-dominated societies and that Christianity and Islam are the largest world religions, so it makes sense that they should be the primary targets of such arguments.
Every time I hear this argument or one like it, though, I cringe at its misapplication to all religion. In particular, it does not apply to Judaism.
In Judaism faith is, if anything, discouraged. Belief in God is completely irrelevant and if you wind up believing you are expected to reach that point through study, dialogue and reason. What is important in Judaism is one's actions - the Torah commands that you do things, not that you believe things - and even without any belief at all you are still expected to partake in holidays as cultural, communal and traditional ceremonies.
I completely understand that the ancient Hebrews were violent, xenophobic and highly immoral by modern standards and that anyone who tries to implement the laws in the Pentateuch literally and fully should be locked up away from society, but modern Judaism almost unanimously realizes this as well and views the bible through the lens of centuries of ethical and theological commentaries as well as recognizing that further commentaries are likely forthcoming.
Ultimately, I don't think that Judaism can be brought under this umbrella of "anti-thought." I also expect that many free-though advocates will likely agree with me on this, since Jews are disproportionately present in purely secular and atheist groupings.
Of course, since Judaism is simultaneously religion, culture and heritage, one can easily be Jewish and atheist simultaneously, a combination I have heard referred to as a "cultural Jew."