Science Points to God
The anthropic principle (Greek: anthropos, "human being" ) states that the universe was fitted from the very first moment of its existence for the emergence of life in general and human life in particular. As agnostic astronomer; Robert Jastrow, noted, the universe is amazingly preadapted to the eventual appearance of humanity (see Jastrow, "A Scientist Caught" ). For if there were even the slightest variation at the moment of the big bang, making conditions different, even to a small degree, no life of any kind would exist. In order for life to be present today an incredibly restrictive set of demands must have been present in the early universe--and they were.
Supporting Evidence: Not only does the scientific evidence point to a beginning of the cosmos, but it points to a very sophisticated high tuning of the universe from the very beginning that makes human life possible. For life to be present today, an incredibly restrictive set of demands must have been present in the early universe:
1. Oxygen comprises 21 percent of the atmosphere. If it were 25 percent, fires would erupt, it it were 15 percent, human beings would suffocate.
2. If the gravitational force were altered by 1 part in 10 40 (that's 10 followed by forty zeroes), the sun would not exist, and the moon would crash into the earth or sheer off into space. (Heeren, 196). Even a slight increase in the force of gravity would result in all the stars being much more massive than our sun, with the effect that the sun would burn too rapidly and erractically to sustain life.
3. If the centrifugal force of planetary movements did not precisely balance the gravitational forces, nothing could be held in orbit around the sun.
4. If the universe was expanding at a rate one millionth more slowly than it is, the temperature on earth would be 10,000 degrees C. (ibid., 185).
5. The average distance between stars in our galaxy of 100 billion stars is 30 trillion miles. If that distance was altered slightly, orbits would become erratic, and there would be extreme temperature variations on earth. (Traveling at space shuttle speed, seventeen thousand miles an hour or five miles a second, it would take 201,450 years to travel 30 trillion miles.).
6. Any of the laws of physics can be described as a function of the velocity of light (now defined to be 186,282 miles a second). Even a slight variation in the speed of light would alter the other constants and preclude the possibility of life on earth (Ross, 126).
7. If Jupiter was not in its current orbit, we would be bombarded with space material. Jupiter's gravitational field acts as a cosmic vacuum cleaner, attracting asteroids and comets that would otherwise strike earth (ibid., 196).
8. If the thickness of the earth's crust was greater, too much oxygen would be transferred to the crust to support life. If it were thinner, volcanic and tectonic activity would make life untenable (ibid., 130).
9. If the rotation of the earth took longer than 24 hours, temperature differences would be too great between night and day. If the rotation period was shorter, atmospheric wind velocities would be too great.
10. Surface temperature differences would be too great if the axial tilt of the earth were altered slightly.
11. If the atmospheric discharge (lightening) rate were greater, there would bee too much fire destruction; if it were less, there would be too little nitrogen fixing in the soil.
12. If there were more seismic activity, much life would be lost. If there were less, nutrients on the ocean floors and in river runoff would not be cycled back to the continents through tectonic uplift. Even earthquakes are necessary to sustain life as we know it.
The mass, the entropy level of the universe, the stability of the proton, and innumerable other things must be just right to male life possible.
Theistic Implications: Robert Jastrow summarized the theistic implications well: "The anthropic principle...seems to say that science itself has proven, as hard fact, that this universe was made, was designed, for man to live in. It's a very theistic result" (Jastrow, "A Scientist Caught," p. 17).
Albert Einstein said: "the harmony of natural law...reveals an intelligence of such superiority that, compared with it, all the systematic thinking and acting of human beings is an utterly insignificant reflection" (Einstein, 40).
J.D. Barrow, et al., The Anthropic Cosmological Principle
A. Einstein, Ideals and Opinions--The World as I See It
F. Heeren, Show Me God
F. Hoyle, The Intelligent Universe
R. Jastrow, A Scientist Caught between Two Faiths: Interview with Robert Jastrow," CT, 6 August 1982
------God and the Astronomers
H. R. Pagels, Perfect Symmetry
H. Ross, The Fingerprints of God
A. Sandage, "A Scientist Reflects on Religious Belief," Truth (1985)
S. Weinberg, Dreams of a Final Theory--The Search for the Fundemental Laws of Nature